About Africa Research Online

This website is the online face of the Africa Research Bulletin, the leading bulletin service on Africa, appearing in two series – Political, Social and Cultural, and Economic, Financial and Technical – available separately or in a combined subscription.

Here you’ll find excerpts of articles appearing in the Bulletin, background pieces to topical African issues, and succinct analysis of the key stories coming out of the continent.

The Bulletin has been a leading research service on Africa since 1964, providing impartial summaries of, and extensive reports on, political and economic developments throughout the continent.  Drawing on hundreds of reports from local press, websites and radio, as well as international organisations and news agencies, the Bulletin gives a uniquely comprehensive picture, with comment and analysis drawn from Africa and around the world.  All sources are acknowledged and each issue is fully indexed. A simple to use cross referencing system guides readers to related articles in previous issues of the Bulletin.

The coverage of the Political, Social and Cultural Series includes: Continental Alignments, Internal Developments, National Security, Military, Overseas Relations and Social and Cultural issues.

The coverage of the Economic, Financial and Technical series includes: Continental Developments, Policy and Practice, Communications and Transport, Commodities, Industries and Economic Aid.

Countries and regional entities are listed alphabetically within each of these main sections. All sources are acknowledged and each issue is comprehensively indexed.

Fact and comment are drawn from a large range of local press, radio and online sources. These are complemented with information from international organizations, the world press, news agencies and the internet. The Africa Research Bulletin provides a balance of comment and opinion from local and international sources which monitor future trends and developments.

Used together, the accumulated knowledge of the Political and Economic Bulletins give readers an in-depth understanding of Africa since 1964.

The Africa Research Bulletin is published by Wiley Blackwell. Please visit Wiley Online Library to access Africa Research Bulletin content online, as well as browse the full Wiley collection of journals and books in the social sciences and humanities.

Legal Stuff and Terms and Conditions

Links
Links may be provided from this Blog to other websites.  Where such links exist, the Publisher disclaims all responsibility and liability for the content of such third party websites.  Users assume the sole responsibility for the accessing of third party websites and the use of any content appearing on such websites. Users should be aware that the privacy and data protection policies of other websites vary and that, in using any links to other websites including, without limitation, partners and affiliates of the Blog, the Publisher takes no responsibility for the privacy policies of and usage of personal information collected by others.

Copyright
The entire content of this Blog and any publications and material which may be accessed from it are protected by copyright, regardless of whether a copyright notice appears on a particular screen where such materials are displayed.  Requests to use material for purposes other than those set forth in the Terms of Use should be addressed to [Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, email: permissionsuk@wiley.com]

Content
The statements and opinions in the material contained in this Blog are those of the individual contributors, authors, or advertisers, as indicated.  The Blog and its content (whether provided by the  Publisher or by third parties) is provided on an ‘as is’ basis, without warranties of any kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, warranties of satisfactory quality or fitness for a particular purpose or warranties as to accuracy or completeness.  Neither the Publisher nor anyone else involved in creating, producing or delivering the Blog shall be liable to the fullest extent permitted by the law for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, consequential or punitive damages arising out of the User’s use of or inability to use the Blog or any materials or information in it.

Advertising
The acceptance of advertising in this Blog does not imply any endorsement of the product advertised.

Africa Research Online Privacy and Data Protection Policy
Blackwell Publishing Ltd and associated persons and companies (collectively, “Wiley-Blackwell”) recognize the importance of protecting the information collected from Users in the operation of this website, and take reasonable steps to maintain the security, integrity and privacy of any information in accordance with this Privacy and Data Protection Policy. By submitting your information to Wiley-Blackwell you consent to the practices described herein.

Wiley-Blackwell will ensure that any identifiable personal information it collects through, for example, the registration process, will be adequate, relevant and not excessive for purposes of operating this website or any of the services operated hereunder, it will be kept accurate and up-to-date based on information provided and it will be deleted when no longer needed. Except where necessary in connection with services provided by appropriate intermediaries, who will be required to comply with the confidentiality provisions of this policy, Wiley-Blackwell will not disclose any personal information identifying Users to any third party, unless required by law or to enforce the Africa Research Online Terms and Conditions of Use or otherwise needed in connection with legal proceedings or unless we have received your consent.

If use of an electronic product, feature or service offered by Wiley-Blackwell on this website requires a User or a Contributor to provide a name and password or other personally identifiable information, the User will have the option to opt in or out of providing such information and using the product, feature or service. Any private communications or information supplied to Wiley-Blackwell by a User may be used by Wiley-Blackwell for internal business and research purposes and to help enhance and develop our websites but will not be shared with third parties unless we receive your consent.

Wiley-Blackwell may disclose to carefully chosen third parties navigational and transactional information in the form of anonymous, aggregate usage statistics (including “page views” on this website and the products herein) and demographics but only in forms that do not reveal a User’s identity or confidential information, except as required by law, as needed in connection with legal proceedings, or unless we have received your consent.

Links may be provided from this website to other third party websites. In using such links, Users should be aware that each third party website will vary in terms of its privacy and data protection policies, and Wiley-Blackwell does not take responsibility for the privacy policies of, and usage of, personal information collected by others including, without limitation, those of any partner or affiliate.

You should be aware that identifiable personal information – such as your name or e-mail address – that you voluntarily disclose that are accessible to other Users (e.g. in your contributions to the Wiki content, on bulletin boards or in chat areas) could be collected and disclosed by others. Wiley-Blackwell cannot take any responsibility for such collection and disclosure.

Please note that Wiley-Blackwell’s Privacy and Data Protection Policy is reviewed periodically. Wiley-Blackwell reserves the right to modify its Privacy and Data Protection Policy at any time without notice. Any changes to the policy will be posted on this page. Your continued use of this website will be deemed conclusive acceptance of such modification. Any comments or questions concerning this policy should be addressed to Africa Research Online Privacy Policy at privacy@wiley.com. If at any point you wish to access your personal information to (1) change your preferences, (2) review the accuracy, or (3) correct, supplement or modify your information, you may either send an e-mail to the address set forth above, make a written request to Blackwell Publishing Ltd, c/o John Wiley & Sons, Inc., The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ.

Additional Services
In addition Africa Research Online may offer additional services, including optional E-mail Alerting Services , which can be opted into during your registration to the Blog or at the relevant time and may be opted out of at any time. By choosing to take advantage of this and other services offered by Africa Research Online, you consent to the use of your information for the purposes of providing these services.

Use of Cookies
A cookie is a small piece of information that a website puts on a hard drive so that it can remember information about a user at a later date. In Africa Research Online cookies are used as a temporary, Session Control cookie to validate access privileges. Cookies may be used to gather or provide usage statistics. By choosing to take advantage of these services, you consent to the use of your information for the purposes of providing these services.

Session Control Cookie
Session control cookies are used on most Web sites today because they facilitate navigation. In order to use Africa Research Online users must have their browsers set to accept cookies.

Once a user is signed onto Africa Research Online, our Web server uses a temporary cookie to help us manage the visit to the service. This Session Control Cookie is deleted when the user quits the browser. This cookie allows us to quickly determine access control rights and personal preferences during the online session. The Session Control Cookie is set out of necessity and not out of convenience.

For further information on WordPress Cookies Codex, please click here.

ISSUE DATE: 11th November 2011

Terms and Conditions

AFRICA RESEARCH ONLINE  (https://africaresearchonline.wordpress.com) (“the Blog”).

The Blog is owned by Blackwell Publishing Ltd whose registered office is at The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ (“the Publisher”).

The following Terms and Conditions of Use, govern use by all users of the Blog (each a “User”) and Contributions (as defined below) by all Contributors (as defined below) to the Blog. Please read the following carefully because by using or contributing to the Blog you are irrevocably agreeing to fully abide by these Terms and Conditions of Use and the Privacy and Data Protection Policy.

A “Contribution” or “Content” shall mean any and all material and content submitted in a contribution by a Contributor to the Blog.

USE OF THE BLOG

Contributions are provided by individuals or groups (each a “Contributor”) working together to develop a resource that will evolve over time.  Important: Contributions have not necessarily been contributed, reviewed or vetted by people with expertise in the relevant subject field and no warranties or assurances are given that such Contributions are accurate, complete, up-to-date or reliable.  All Contributions are provided on an “as is” basis strictly subject to the Blog Disclaimers.

The entire contents of all material available through the Blog are protected by copyright unless otherwise indicated. As a User and/or as a Contributor, you have certain rights specified below; all other rights are reserved.  All Users, including Contributors, will have access to all Content within the Blog. All content shall be submitted to the Blog subject to the grant of a non-exclusive licence as described under the Contributions heading below and these Terms and Conditions and the Blog’s Privacy and Data Protection Policy.

Except as expressly provided in these Terms and Conditions and the Creative Commons licence found under ‘Reuse of Contributions’ below, Users may not copy, distribute, transmit or otherwise reproduce, sell or resell Content or any extracts of Content from the Blog; store such material in any form or medium in a retrieval system; download and/or store Content; or transmit such material, directly or indirectly, for use in any paid service such as document delivery or list serve, or for use by any information brokerage or for systematic distribution, whether or not for commercial or non-profit use or for a fee or free of charge.

Users agree not to remove, obscure or modify any copyright or proprietary notices, author attribution or any disclaimer as they appear on the Blog. Users may not integrate material from the Blog with other material or otherwise create derivative works in any medium. However, brief quotations for purposes of comment, criticism or similar scholarly purposes are not prohibited herein.

Users may not do anything to restrict or inhibit any other User’s access to or use of the Blog.

If a User refuses or fails to abide by these Terms and Conditions or violates any other terms of this Agreement, the Publisher reserves the right in its sole discretion to suspend or terminate their access to the Blog immediately without notice, in addition to any other available remedies.

Users shall not have the right to incorporate any Content from the Blog into any institutional or other repository under any circumstances without the Publisher’s prior written approval.

CONTRIBUTIONS

For the purposes of this Terms and Conditions and the Blog a ‘Contribution’ shall mean any and all material submitted to the Blog by a Contributor (“Contribution”).

By submitting a Contribution to the Blog, Contributor’s agree to grant the Publisher a non-exclusive licence to use all or part of that Contribution in any way. Although the particular Contributor(s) will still own the copyright in such Contribution, the Publisher will have the right to freely use, edit, alter, reproduce, publish, sell and/or distribute all or part of the material contained in such Contribution. This licence will be free of charge, perpetual and capable of sub-licence (including but not limited to the grant of a Creative Commons licence to Users of the website as mentioned in “Reuse of Contributions” below). The Publisher may exercise all copyright and publicity rights in the material contained in such Contribution in all jurisdictions, to their full extent and for the full period for which any such rights exist in that material. Further, by submitting a Contribution to the Blog the Contributor hereby grants to the Publisher the right to use the name, likeness and biographical data of the Contributor on or in connection with the Blog and any other products of the Publisher containing part or all of such Contribution or in any derivative works thereof, and in advertising, publicity or promotion related thereto and in connection with the licence of any rights in such Contribution.

Please also note that, in accordance with these Terms and Conditions, Contributors must ensure that their Contribution(s) do not infringe any copyright, database right or trade mark of any other person. By submitting a Contribution to the Blog, the Contributor warrants that it has the right to grant the Publisher a non-exclusive copyright licence described above.

If a Contributor is not in a position to grant such a licence to the Publisher, it should refrain from submitting the Contribution to the Blog.

The Blog is intended to facilitate sharing of information in good faith.  Contributors agree NOT to submit material which:

  • they know or have reason to believe or suspect may be untrue or inaccurate;
  • is in contempt of court
  • is unlawful, defamatory, contains malicious or negligent or false statements, is obscene, threatening, offensive, harmful or contains otherwise objectionable content (this includes text, graphics, sounds and links);
  • has an obviously falsified author attribution or is from a source which has clearly falsified the origin or source of content that is submitted;
  • is in part or in whole not entirely your own work, except for small quotations or extracts (only to the extent permitted under the United Kingdom’s Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or equivalent US legislation) which must be attributed to their correct source;
  • is not in the English language;
  • violates the legal rights or any Intellectual Property Rights of others – if your reply contains material owned or created by someone other than yourself you warrant that you have obtained consent to use such material where such consent is necessary;
  • contains within the text any personal information about others which you have not obtained their consent to post;
  • discriminates against others, including racially, on grounds of gender or sexual orientation, religiously, in terms of age or disability or otherwise unfairly;
  • is likely to contravene accepted ethical guidelines and practices;
  • advertises, promotes or offers to sell any goods or services or other websites;
  • promotes an illegal act or incites inappropriate or unlawful behaviour;
  • uses inappropriate (e.g. vulgar or offensive) language, including names;
  • may contain viruses or that may damage the Publisher’s or other users’ computers.
  • contains any statement which Contributor’s know or believe, or have reasonable grounds for believing, that members of the public to whom the statement is, or is to be, published are likely to understand as a direct or indirect encouragement or other inducement to the commission, preparation or instigation of acts of terrorism.

For the purposes of these Terms and Conditions “Intellectual Property Rights” shall mean, without limitation, patents, trademarks, trade names, design rights, copyright (including rights in computer software), database rights, rights in know-how and other intellectual property rights, in each case whether registered or unregistered, which may subsist anywhere in the world.

The Users and Contributors acknowledge that the Blog and the Intellectual Property Rights contained therein are protected by law. All rights not specifically licensed to the Users are expressly reserved by the Publisher.

Contributors acknowledge that the nature of a collaborative resource or “wiki” that others, including Contributors or the Publisher, may edit or remove any Content submitted by you at its sole discretion and without providing any reason.

Each Contributor acknowledges that they take full responsibility for any and all content and each Contribution he/she contributes to the Blog.

BREACH OF THESE TERMS AND CONDITIONS

When the Publisher considers that a breach of these Terms and Conditions has occurred, we may at our discretion take such action as we deem appropriate. Failure to comply with these Terms and Conditions constitutes a material breach of the same on which you are permitted to use the Blog, and may result in our taking all or any of the following actions:

  • Immediate, temporary or permanent withdrawal of your right to use the Blog.
  • Immediate, temporary or permanent removal of any Contribution already posted on the Blog.
  • Issue of a warning to you.
  • Legal proceedings against you for reimbursement of all costs on an indemnity basis (including, but not limited to, reasonable administrative and legal costs) resulting from the breach.
  • Further legal action against you.
  • Disclosure of such information to law enforcement authorities as we reasonably feel is necessary or as required by law.

The Publisher excludes its liability for all action we may take in response to breaches of these Terms and Conditions. The actions described above are not limited, and the Publisher may take any other action it reasonably deems appropriate.

RE-USE OF CONTRIBUTIONS BY USERS

Users may use any Contributions on the Blog according to these Terms and Conditions and the terms of the following Creative Commons licence:

Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY NC)

In brief, and subject to the terms of such licence, this licence lets the Users remix, tweak, and build upon Contributions non-commercially as long as they credit the Contributor (and the Blog). Please find the full terms applicable to this CC licence at the following link:

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/legalcode

Please note that when crediting the Contributor in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Licence The Blog additionally requires Users to state that the Contribution can be found at https://africaresearchonline.wordpress.com (Blackwell Publishing Ltd) and to state the URL of the relevant Contribution.

Contributors should use the following format when crediting any permitted re-use of a Contribution:

[title of the Contribution] © [year of publication] [name of the original Contributor(s)]

The original article was published at https://africaresearchonline.wordpress.com (Blackwell Publishing Ltd) and such article can be found at the following URL: [insert URL hyperlink to Contribution as it appears on https://africaresearchonline.wordpress.com]

ADDITIONAL TERMS

The Publisher is not responsible for any charges associated with accessing the Blog, including, but not limited to, any computer equipment, telephone or Internet connections and access software.

The Publisher may modify any of these terms and conditions at any time by providing notice on the Blog. A User’s continued use of the Blog shall be conclusively deemed acceptance of such modification.

The Blog may provide links to third-party websites. Where such links exist, the Publisher disclaims all responsibility and liability for the content of such third-party websites. Users assume the sole responsibility for the accessing of third-party websites and the use of any content appearing on such websites.

PRIVACY AND DATA PROTECTION POLICY

The Publisher recognizes the importance of protecting the information it collects in the operation of the Blog and will act in compliance with the Blog’s Privacy and Data Protection Policy .

LINKING TO THE BLOG

You may link to the Blog’s home page, provided you do so in a way that is fair and legal and does not damage our reputation or take advantage of it, but you must not establish a link in such a way as to suggest any form of association, approval or endorsement on our part where none exists.

You must not establish a link from any website that is not owned by you.

The Blog must not be framed on any other site, nor may you create a link to any part of the Blog other than the home page. We reserve the right to withdraw linking permission without notice. The website from which you are linking must comply in all respects with the content standards set out in these Terms and Conditions.

If you wish to make any use of material on our site other than that set out above, please address your request to [violeta.ribarska@wiley.com].

ADDITIONAL SERVICES

In addition the Blog may offer additional services, including optional E-mail Alerting Services, which are opted into by registration and may be opted out of at any time. By choosing to take advantage of this and other services offered by the Blog, Users consent to the use of their information for the purposes of providing these services.

Use of Cookies: A cookie is a small piece of information that a website puts on a hard drive so that it can remember information about a user at a later date. In the Blog cookies are used as a temporary Session Control cookie to validate access privileges. Cookies may be used to gather or provide usage statistics. By choosing to take advantage of these services, Users consent to the use of their information for the purposes of providing these services.

Once a user is signed onto Africa Research Online, our Web server uses a temporary cookie to help us manage the visit to the service. This Session Control Cookie is deleted when the user quits the browser. This cookie allows us to quickly determine access control rights and personal preferences during the online session. The Session Control Cookie is set out of necessity and not out of convenience.

For further information on WordPress Cookies Codex, please click here.

GOVERNING LAW AND JURISDICTION
This will be governed by English Law as if made and wholly performed in England and the parties agree to submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts.

 

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