Kenya, Tanzania – Cross-Border Dispute

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Diplomatic relations between the two countries have been strained over the seizure and sale of cattle belonging to Kenyan Maasai herders.

A Tanzanian court has auctioned 1,305 Kenyan cows whose herders had driven them across the border, said Tanzania’s Daily News on November 14th.

Four Kenyan herders were charged with being in the neighbouring country without valid travel documents. Tanzania remains the only East African Community (EAC) country that Kenyans need a passport and visa to enter, even while travelling by road.

Meanwhile, Tanzanian authorities recently burnt 6,400 chicks from Kenya on suspicion they could spread bird flu.

The auctioning of the livestock has stirred anger in Oloitokitok, which borders Tanzania.

The Kenyan herders sought the government’s help to secure the release of their animals before the auction, but the Tanzanian authorities remained adamant, the East African reported.

According to Kilimanjaro Regional Commissioner Anna Mghwira, the auction followed the law after the herders failed to raise a fine imposed on them.

Easing tension

The herders along Kenya’s border with Tanzania now want the government to show a much firmer hand even as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs calls for dialogue with Tanzania to resolve cross-border issues between the two countries.

Tanzania is in the process of auctioning another 2,400 cattle for crossing into Mount Kilimanjaro National Park in search of pasture, the East African reported on November 11th.

Kenya is asking the EAC to formulate a policy guiding relations between border communities because the Maasai from either side traditionally cross the border in search of pasture.

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Maasai herder in the Serengeti, Tanzania. CC 2015

In a letter dated November 3rd to Tanzanian authorities, Kenya’s EAC Minister Phyllis Kandie said since August, Kenya has allowed in 4,000 cattle from Tanzania.

“We have tried our best to cool down the Kenyan community at the border and we hope Tanzania will play its part in promoting good neighbourliness,” Ms Kandie said.

However, Tanzania President John Magufuli has asked the country’s herders to brand their animals for easy identification and monitoring. He said the seizure was within Tanzania’s laws and key to conservation, adding that Tanzania was not a grazing field for cattle from other countries.

Kenya has said it will compensate herders whose animals were auctioned to the tune of $530,000.

‘Flimsy grounds’

Kajiado Governor Joseph ole Lenku accused the Magufuli administration of harassing Kenyans on flimsy grounds.

Former Tanzania prime minister Edward Lowassa, a Maasai, asked the governments to address the matter diplomatically.

“The Maasai have co-existed in harmony. When we start having such issues then we are threatening that same peace. We should try and sort out this issue at the national level so as to guarantee co-existence at the local level,” Mr. Lowassa told the East African.

However, the Permanent Secretary in Tanzania’s Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Maria Mashingo said that seizure of cattle would continue.

“It is important for our border communities to not allow, for any reason, herders from other countries to bring their cattle into our pastures as this is economic sabotage. We are also urging our herders to avoid crossing the borders into other countries by any means possible to overcome similar problems,” Dr Mashingo said.

Find out more in the Africa Research Bulletin:

KENYA: Economy Slows
Economic, Financial and Technical series
Vol. 54, Issue 9, pp. 21852C–21853A

Kenya – Tanzania :Trade War
Economic, Financial and Technical series
Vol. 54, Issue 7, pp. 21773C

TANZANIA: Graft Scandal
Economic, Financial and Technical series
Vol. 54, Issue 6, pp. 21747B–21747C

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Tanzania – What Would Magufuli Do?

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He bulldozed a reputation as a no-nonsense president who wasn’t afraid to go hard on corruption, but crackdowns on independent media have raised fears of an authoritarian streak.

There was a time in late 2015 and early 2016 – when Tanzania’s President John Magufuli had only just been elected – that the man they call ‘The Bulldozer’ could do no wrong.

He staged surprise visits to government departments to make sure everyone was working. He put a cap on official travel, and vowed to eliminate corruption. All over Africa, long-suffering citizens looked at their own moribund governments and wondered to themselves, and then on social media: #WhatWouldMagufuliDo?

‘However, in the shadows of these laudable activities the president has demonstrated a worrying authoritarian inclination to repress dissent,’ writes Nic Cheeseman, professor of democracy and international development at the University of Birmingham, on his blog.

Even Magufuli’s much-lauded anti-corruption drive was not all it seemed to be.

‘Stopping corruption by sacking officials in an ad hoc manner […] may look dynamic and effective, but in reality it exacerbates the problem,’ says Cheeseman.

‘At root, corruption occurs because institutional checks and balances are not sufficient to prevent individuals from abusing their positions. Dealing with this by further undermining official processes ignores the heart of the problem and actually leaves institutions more, not less, vulnerable to manipulation.’

Where Magufuli is concerned, this should serve as a cautionary tale.

This year the president has been in the continental headlines again. He is now earning plaudits for taking on the big mining companies who, he says, have been plundering Tanzania’s wealth for decades.

His administration has slapped a massive fine on UK-based Acacia Mining, the biggest gold miner in the country, for allegedly misreporting their gold exports. At US$190bn, the fine is one of the largest in corporate history.

At the same time, Magufuli has pushed through new legislation to drastically reform Tanzania’s mining laws, including a ban on exporting unprocessed mineral ores in an attempt to force companies to refine locally.

These are groundbreaking policies designed to ensure that Tanzania benefits more from its vast mineral wealth. But before lauding Magufuli for his visionary leadership, it is worth considering what impact this is likely to have on the Tanzanian economy.

Southern Africa Resource Watch director Claude Kabemba told ISS Today there is no doubt that Tanzania’s mining industry needs a major overhaul. But he is concerned that Magufuli’s proposals are neither consistent nor comprehensive, and may ultimately fail to deliver the systematic reform necessary.

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Newly inaugurated President Magufuli greets President of Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe in November 2015. (Photo: GCIS)

As his domestic popularity has declined over the past year – from an extraordinary 96% in June 2016 to a still-respectable 71% in June 2017 – Magufuli has been looking for ways to reconnect with his base and to win over an increasingly sceptical opposition.

‘By espousing the language of sovereignty and economic war, Magufuli is tapping into political memories of liberation struggle and revolution,’ says Tanzania analyst Dan Paget on African Arguments.

‘This is not to cast aspersions about the sincerity of Magufuli’s intentions to reform the mining sector, but to illustrate that those reforms serve several purposes at once,’ says Paget.

Meanwhile, human rights organisations accuse Tanzania’s government of using repressive legislation to muzzle the media, civil society and opposition politicians critical of the institution.

Mwanahalisi in September became the second newspaper to be banned in Tanzania in one year, VOA reported. The government said the paper had violated previous warnings about articles criticising President Magufuli.

“We report facts that are liked by many readers and we point out where the government is going wrong,” said news editor Saed Kubenea. “That’s our policy since the start of this newspaper.”

The news outlet was also banned in 2012 for publishing stories that allegedly threatened national security. After a three-year court battle, the ban was lifted. Kubenea says they are hopeful they will get a similar ruling.

Earlier this year, Mawio newspaper was banned for two years after linking two retired presidents to dubious mining contracts. Rights groups criticised the ban as an attack on freedom of expression, which has been restricted since Magufuli came to power in 2015.

In the 2015 election, President Magufuli received 58% of the vote, compared to previous elections in which 80% of Tanzanians voted for the ruling CCM party.

Tanzania – TEDGlobal Conference

From fostering innovation in one of the world’s harshest environments to novel ways to repel mosquitoes and map the world, here are some highlights from the TEDGlobal conference in Arusha, Tanzania.

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Seeds of a Somali tech scene

Somali scientist Abdigani Diriye believes that at some point, his country needs to do more than devote all its resources to fighting piracy, Al-Shabaab and famine.

So about six years ago, he returned from the UK, where his family fled civil war in 1989, to his home in Somaliland to create the country’s first start-up incubators and accelerators.

So far they have trained more than 25 start-ups. Diriye realises tech won’t solve all of Somalia’s problems, “but it is a great vehicle to address many other challenges” such as healthcare, unemployment and education.

Others have since followed in his footsteps such as the iRise innovation hub which launched in June in Mogadishu.

 

Meet you at ‘prices.slippery.traps’

UK-based company What3Words has developed a new system of mapping the world by dividing it into a grid of 3m x 3m squares and giving each square a three-word address – so instead of complex co-ordinates, you could find someone at “prices.slippery.traps” – a specific spot around the Eiffel Tower.

Postal services in Mongolia, Djibouti, Nigeria and Cote d’Ivoire have adopted the system while the United Nations (UN) uses it in disaster areas, where like billions around the world, people may be living without an address.

 

Mosquito-repellent sandals

Tanzanian scientist Fredros Okumu and his team at the Ifakara Health Institute are working on new ways to repel and eliminate the carriers of malaria, dengue and Zika.

They are currently mapping mosquito breeding spots so they can identify and destroy swarms, while a repellent that can be worn in sandals or placed under chairs, protecting several people in the immediate area for up to six months, is currently being tested in Tanzania and Brazil.

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Sierra Leonean roboticist David Sengeh – CC 2016

 

Algorithms to detect diseases

Infectious diseases are fast being overtaken by afflictions such as cancer as the biggest health problem in Africa, where some countries have only one pathologist per 1m people.

Sierra Leonean roboticist David Sengeh is working with his team at IBM Africa on artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms that can predict a cancer’s progression.

AI software can be trained with a database of images to detect colour changes inside the cervix that point to patients at high risk for cervical cancer, which can be treated if caught in time, but which kills 60,000 women in Africa a year.

 

‘Eye-phones’ and mobile hearing

American ear surgeon Susan Emmett is currently testing South African-developed mobile screening technology in rural Alaskan communities that has replaced the need for an audiologist and permanent equipment and costs 10 times less than traditional solutions.

The audience was also shown a video by eye surgeon Andrew Bastawrous who won a Rolex Award in 2016 for Peek, an “eye-phone”, or smartphone app he developed for use in Kenya, which uses a low-cost clip-on device to take images of the back of the eye to test sight.

 

Drone blood delivery

In Rwanda, a system launched in 2016 to fly blood via drones from a central distribution centre to hospitals around the hilly nation has saved numerous lives, said robotics entrepreneur Keller Rinaudo, whose company Zipline runs the system.

The drones now deliver 20% of blood supply outside the capital Kigali.

In July, Tanzania’s health ministry announced they would use the same technology to deliver a variety of medical products in what is set to be the largest autonomous delivery system anywhere in the world. (AFP 31/8, 1/9 2017)

Nile Basin – No Deal After Summit

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Discussions between Nile Basin countries fail to reach agreement as many leaders boycott talks.

The Nile Basin Summit from June 20-22nd was convened to provide an opportunity for the ten countries reliant on the River Nile to agree on the equitable use of the resource. Tensions around the vital water source have persisted for many decades.

Initial signs, however, were less promising as a number of leaders chose not to attend. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and his South Sudanese counterpart Salva Kirr notified the delegates that they would skip the event.

The summit brought together all countries along the River Nile and was attended by Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn, South Sudan Vice President Joseph Wani, Burundi’s 2nd Vice President Joseph Butore and Sudan’s Vice President Hasabo Mohammed Abdul Rahman.

The leaders of Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania also turned down invitations to attend at the last minute, although no clear reasons for the decision were given by the respective embassies.

It was clear during the meeting that an agreement on the equitable use of resources was proving difficult as stakeholders repeatedly walked out of meetings at the Speke Resort Munyonyo in Uganda.

Led by Sudan, water security experts walked out a meeting at 10pm on June 21st, while Ethiopia followed suit. In the large the summit was organised to nudge Egypt, the biggest beneficiary of the Nile basin, to join the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI).

However, Egyptian Minister for Irrigation and Water Resources Mohammed Abdel-Atti said that his country would only rejoin if some provisions in the draft Cooperative Framework Agreement (CFA) were changed.

Al-Sisi reportedly said that his country was suffering from a water deficit of 21.5 billion cubic metres per year. However, although Egypt hasn’t yet rejoined NBI, it will engage in development projects in the region.

Speaking to journalists, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni said he and his colleagues discussed development issues. Despite only three heads of state being present, Museveni said they decided to meet as leaders to discuss the ‘strategic issues of the Nile.’ reported the Observer. 

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Nile Basin – Source: Africa Water.

According to Museveni, prosperity for the Nile Basin countries is the best way to protect the river and other vital water systems in Africa. He pointed out a number of key threats to water systems.

These threats included the growing population, lack of electricity supply, lack of industrialisation, over-reliance on primitive agriculture and the destruction of the environment on which the Nile depends.

He said that industrialising the Nile Basin would resolve the problems of the bulk of the population engaging in primitive agriculture, pushing many into the industry and service sectors. He added that this would reduce the strain on the environment through the invasion of wetlands and destruction of forests for agriculture, reported the Uganda Media Centre.

Of course this sort of solution is denounced by others who note how industrialisation will lead to further environmental degradation and pollution, and raise levels of inequality as groups are incorporated, often on adverse terms, as labourers in the service or manufacturing economy.

Further, a deal between Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan signed in December 2015 whereby the three countries agreed to end tensions over River Nile water, is also facing an unclear future due to ongoing tensions between Egypt and Sudan.

The two downstream countries at the end of April agreed to de-escalate tensions and end counter-accusations as well as import bans and deportations had brought relations between the two countries to tipping point.

Meanwhile Ethiopia continued its quest to bring Nile Basin countries on its side as its Grand Renaissance Dam nearing completion.

With electricity as a bargaining chip observers say Ethiopia will have an edge over Egypt which claims the majority share of Nile waters, given to it by a colonial agreement put in place by the British, reported the East African.

Find out more in the Africa Research Bulletin today:

Grand Renaissance Dam Project
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol. 52, Issue. 3, Pp. 20795A–20795B

POWER: Egypt – Ethiopia – Sudan
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol. 51, Issue. 8, Pp. 20543C–20545C

EGYPT – ETHIOPIA: Nile Dam Problems
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol. 50, Issue. 10, Pp. 20154B–20155B

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Africa – GMO Debate Reignited

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As a number of countries debate the use of GMO crops to address food security, others have stressed opposition to profit-driven agribusiness.

Recently, in August, Kenyan Vice-President William Ruto announced a move to lift a ban on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) imports by the end-of October, with a wide-ranging selection of Ministers supporting the move. GMO crops are now free to be field tested in the county with sites already set up at Kalro field stations.

Currently there are trials for a virus-resistant transgenic cassava at Alupe; a vitamin A-enhanced cassava at Alupe; biofortified sorghum at Kiboko and virus-resistant cassava at Mtwapa, explained the East African.

The Daily Nation reported that the decision to lift the ban has reignited the debate around GMO crops with farmers groups protesting across the country; one group, the Kenya Small-Scale Farmers has sought an order from the high court to reverse the decision. Some have even called for investigations into the funding for organisations involved in the sector.

Some scientists do see GMO crops as the answer to stark situations of food security across much of the ‘developing world’; the Kenya National Farmers Federation (Kenaff) stated that the country needed modern technology, of which GMOs are a part.

Kenaff CEO John Mutunga, said that such technology would need to be backed by sound scientific evidence, to dismiss claims that such crops cause adverse health impacts, and to remove the vested interested and donor-oriented policy that dominates the sector.

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Cassava Seed (CC)

Tanzania is also planning trials for a GMO Maize variety for April 2016 in Makutupora area of Dodoma, conducted by Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA), a public-private partnership led by Kenyan-based African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) and financed by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The government recently revised its GMO laws to allow confined trials of maize and cassava, reported the East African.

Similarly the Director-General of the Nigerian National Biosafety Management Agency (NBMA), Rufus Ebegba, has said that the safe application of modern biotechnology will trigger an agricultural revolution in Nigeria.

“Modern biotechnology has the huge potentials to enhance the agricultural sector, promote industrial growth, and the medical sector; and it can also be used for environmental sustainability; but our agency is not to promote modern biotechnology or its products but to ensure the safety because we are aware that this technology has that potential for adversity especially in the agricultural sector” he said, reported Leadership.

Only South Africa, Burkina Faso and Sudan have officially adopted GMO food on the African continent . However the recent and ongoing drought across much of Southern Africa – with five districts in South Africa declared disaster zones–  and the effects of the El Niño weather phenomenon more widely across sub-Saharan Africa, has raised the urgent need for inclusive solutions to the problem of food security, particularly for the very poorest.

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Sorghum Market Ethiopia (CC)

A 2013 report accused scientists of conducting research that favours seed companies; the study by Canadian Professor Matthew A Schnurr claimed that GMOs could jeopardise the livelihoods of local farmers by supplanting locally derived and often resilient seeds, for new supposedly high yielding varieties.

The research, entitled Biotechnology and bio-hegemony in Uganda: Unravelling the social relations underpinning the promotion of genetically modified crops into new African markets, was based on over 70 interviews in Uganda with research scientists, policy experts, lobbyists, and promotional organisations between 2009 and 2012.

In relation to GMO cotton, the report details that the crops are resistant to species of bollworm. However Schnurr claims that bollworm is of limited problem in Uganda, and the crops still continue to be affected by black arm disease and other pests. According to Schnurr the market is supply rather than demand driven, and BT Cotton finds a ‘solution to a non existent problem’, report the East African.

The report also throws doubts on the ability of farmers to pay for the new SureGrow 125, a cotton variety from the United States (US), with evidence from South Africa showing that farmers are paying 30-40% more for their seeds. The variety, which is suited to American climate and mechanised picking, may be unsuitable for the Ugandan context.

It is important that the aims of improving food security and livelihoods for the most vulnerable people do not get lost amidst the rhetoric of a profit-driven agricultural sector. GMOs are likely to be a useful resource in some contexts, but it is important to also remember the wide-variety of foodstuffs, non cash-crops, and farming activities undertaken as livelihood strategies across Africa, which have a tendency to be forgotten in the privileging of monoculture, cash-return GMO crops.

The UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), on November 10th, launched its 2016 International Year of the Pulses, to “raise awareness about the protein power and health benefits of all kinds of dried beans and peas, boost their production and trade, and encourage new and smarter uses throughout the food chain”, reported the UN News Service.

“They have been an essential part of the human diet for centuries…yet, their nutritional value is not generally recognised and is frequently under-appreciated” said FAO Director-General José Graziano da Silva.

Find out more in the Africa Research Bulletin

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: Growth Slows, Food Insecurity Rises 
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol.52, Issue.9, Pp.20979A–20980C

CEREALS: Southern Africa
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol.52, Issue.6, Pp.20896C–20897B

FOOD: FAO Report
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol.52, Issue.2, Pp.20752A–20753A

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Tanzania – New Port to Boost Regional Status

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New port initiative aims to place Tanzania as a transport hub, putting pressure on other regional facilities to compete.

The Tanzanian government has started work on a new US$10bn port and special economic zone (SEZ) in Bagamoyo, which aims to transform the area in to a transport logistics hub and act as a catalyst for international and regional trade.

The project is backed by China and Oman and when completed will dwarf the Kenyan port of Mombasa, putting pressure on the Kenyan government to expand their own facilities. With the new port, Tanzania hopes to be able to efficiently exploit new oil and gas finds.

The total project consists of 800 hectares of the Bagamoyo Port Project and around 1,700 hectares of the Portside Industrial Zone; developed under an agreement between the Tanzanian government – represented by the Tanzania Ports Authority (TPA) and the Export Processing Zone Authority (EPZA) –  China Merchants Holdings International (CMHI) and the Oman State Government Reserve Fund (SGRF), explained a report by Tanzania Daily News.

Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete, stated on October 16th that the construction work was aimed at “brining about an industrial revolution” in the country, reported the East African. The port itself will cater for ‘mega-ships’ with a container vessel size of 8000 twnety foot equivalent units (TEUs).

The project, which will include roads, railway and the SEZ, is expected to take 10 years to complete, but when finished it will have an annual capacity of around 20m containers, compared to 600,000 in Mombasa.

Tanzania is also targeting increased capacity of its main port at Dar es Salaam to 28m tonnes a year by 2020 from the 14.6m tonnes it handled in the financial year 2013/14.

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Mombasa Port: (CC)

Tanzania Daily News explained that hours after the laying of the first foundation stone there was an announcement of the new Mapinga Satelitte City just 2km from the Bagamoyo site, and will include modern housing technology, amenities and recreational facilities.

Kenya is currently constructing a  $274m container terminal in Mombasa, in a bid to handle increasing volumes of trade, which is being driven by a construction boom, infrastructure development and an emerging middle class.

Kenya and Tanzania are caught in a head-to-head race to become the preferred regional transport hub amid massive expansion projects in sea ports, connecting railway and road networks.

“The sheer capacity of the Bagamoyo port should be a concern to Mombasa port managers because capacity is key in port efficiency which many traders look up to,” James Kinyua a cargo dealer in Nairobi said, reported the East African.

Tanzania, like Kenya, wants to capitalise on a long coastline and upgrade existing rickety railways and roads to serve growing landlocked economies in Africa. Recent oil discoveries in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania have catalysed swathes of exploration in the region, but transport infrastructure still lags behind.

Find out more in the Africa Research Bulletin

PORTS AND SHIPPING: Kenya
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol.52, Issue.9, Pp.21003A–21003C

PORTS AND SHIPPING: Tanzania
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol.50, Issue.5, Pp.19994B–19995B

PORTS AND SHIPPING: Tanzania
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol.49, Issue.7, 19633B–19634A

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Africa – Pastoralist Knowledge Hub

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Online hub for pastoralists to help address issues that face some of Africa’s most vulnerable communities

The Pastoralist Knowledge Hub, launched by the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) aims to provide pastoral communities with a space to discover solutions to common challenges, discuss agricultural innovations and nominate and select representatives for global forums.

It will bring together institutions including the African Union (AU), the European Union (EU), the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World bank, alongside NGOs and pastoralist civil society groups.

Pastoral communities are important producers of livestock, meat, milk and animal products, and according to the FAO produce more than half of agricultural GDP in many countries. Through habitat provisioning, nutrient cycling and control of bush encroachment, livestock grazing helps to support the African rangeland ecosystem, however despite this they have often been marginalised in decision making that affects range-lands and migration routes.

According to a UN press release, the new global forum is an attempt to overcome a global policy gap in discussions of pastoralism and the challenges faced by transhumant communities.  Helena Semedo, FAO director-general said that “pastoralists are able to produce food where no crops can be grown. Yet, their concerns are poorly heard by the international community”.

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In Kenya, the Maasai community have faced the failure of seasonal rains in November and December; Kakuta Maimai, a farmer from Kajiado County and member of the Maasai Association, said “it’s nearly a year without rain and many people lost lots of cows to the ongoing drought”, reported Kenyan news outlet The Star (18/4).

In Tanzania representatives of 16 pastoral communities gathered at Kwa-Idd in Arusha city to discuss issues related to changing weather patterns. Edward Porokwa, Director of Pastoralists Indigenous Non-Government Organisations Forum, said that “pastoralists are the most vulnerable group when it comes to effects of global warming and climate change”, reported Tanzania Daily News (6/4).

The International Crisis Group, in an April 1st report, document security issues facing pastoral communities in Central Africa, including a deteriorating regional security situation, global climate change, multiplication in migration roads and expansion of cultivated areas, which is leading to increased  competition for resources, particularly water.

In Chad, due to limited bilateral cooperation on pastoralist issues with the Central African Republic (CAR), there has been an increase in violence especially on migration roads and the emergence of new pastoralist groups with different motives and access to weapons.

In CAR violence between by Christian Anti-Balaka militia has caused many Mbororo herders to shelter in a UN camp and only to venture out after months of talks, according to Reuters.  Thibaud Lesueur of International Crisis Group said that, “it’s very likely that if the pastoralists restarted their herding in the bush a few kilometres from town, they would once again be targeted by militia and bandits.”

Similarly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the migration of Mbororo herdsmen from several surrounding countries has caused tension with the local populations. According to the International Crisis Group,  DRC and CAR do not regulate transhumance and are unable to deal with the violence between communities, whereas some countries such as Niger and Chad receive financial support from donors to regulate pastoralism.

In many parts of Africa conflicts and tensions between pastoral and sedentary communities are increasingly complex, extending beyond national borders and interweaving with other regional conflicts and security issues. It is hoped that the Pastoralist Knowledge Hub will facilitate and contribute to the strengthening of pastoral livelihoods through worldwide sharing of information, stories, solutions and knowledge.

Find out more the Africa Research Bulletin:

Livestock: Kenya
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol.51, Issue. 10, Pp.20611b-20611c

IGAD: World Bank Support for Pastoralists
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol.51, Issue.3, Pp.20333B

Pastoralists Vs Pollution
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol.43, Issue.11, Pp.17173A

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