Kenya, Tanzania – Cross-Border Dispute

economic banner

Diplomatic relations between the two countries have been strained over the seizure and sale of cattle belonging to Kenyan Maasai herders.

A Tanzanian court has auctioned 1,305 Kenyan cows whose herders had driven them across the border, said Tanzania’s Daily News on November 14th.

Four Kenyan herders were charged with being in the neighbouring country without valid travel documents. Tanzania remains the only East African Community (EAC) country that Kenyans need a passport and visa to enter, even while travelling by road.

Meanwhile, Tanzanian authorities recently burnt 6,400 chicks from Kenya on suspicion they could spread bird flu.

The auctioning of the livestock has stirred anger in Oloitokitok, which borders Tanzania.

The Kenyan herders sought the government’s help to secure the release of their animals before the auction, but the Tanzanian authorities remained adamant, the East African reported.

According to Kilimanjaro Regional Commissioner Anna Mghwira, the auction followed the law after the herders failed to raise a fine imposed on them.

Easing tension

The herders along Kenya’s border with Tanzania now want the government to show a much firmer hand even as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs calls for dialogue with Tanzania to resolve cross-border issues between the two countries.

Tanzania is in the process of auctioning another 2,400 cattle for crossing into Mount Kilimanjaro National Park in search of pasture, the East African reported on November 11th.

Kenya is asking the EAC to formulate a policy guiding relations between border communities because the Maasai from either side traditionally cross the border in search of pasture.

1117 serengeti herder
Maasai herder in the Serengeti, Tanzania. CC 2015

In a letter dated November 3rd to Tanzanian authorities, Kenya’s EAC Minister Phyllis Kandie said since August, Kenya has allowed in 4,000 cattle from Tanzania.

“We have tried our best to cool down the Kenyan community at the border and we hope Tanzania will play its part in promoting good neighbourliness,” Ms Kandie said.

However, Tanzania President John Magufuli has asked the country’s herders to brand their animals for easy identification and monitoring. He said the seizure was within Tanzania’s laws and key to conservation, adding that Tanzania was not a grazing field for cattle from other countries.

Kenya has said it will compensate herders whose animals were auctioned to the tune of $530,000.

‘Flimsy grounds’

Kajiado Governor Joseph ole Lenku accused the Magufuli administration of harassing Kenyans on flimsy grounds.

Former Tanzania prime minister Edward Lowassa, a Maasai, asked the governments to address the matter diplomatically.

“The Maasai have co-existed in harmony. When we start having such issues then we are threatening that same peace. We should try and sort out this issue at the national level so as to guarantee co-existence at the local level,” Mr. Lowassa told the East African.

However, the Permanent Secretary in Tanzania’s Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Maria Mashingo said that seizure of cattle would continue.

“It is important for our border communities to not allow, for any reason, herders from other countries to bring their cattle into our pastures as this is economic sabotage. We are also urging our herders to avoid crossing the borders into other countries by any means possible to overcome similar problems,” Dr Mashingo said.

Find out more in the Africa Research Bulletin:

KENYA: Economy Slows
Economic, Financial and Technical series
Vol. 54, Issue 9, pp. 21852C–21853A

Kenya – Tanzania :Trade War
Economic, Financial and Technical series
Vol. 54, Issue 7, pp. 21773C

TANZANIA: Graft Scandal
Economic, Financial and Technical series
Vol. 54, Issue 6, pp. 21747B–21747C

Subscribe to the Africa Research Bulletin today.

Kenya – University Strike

arbp_large

Staff at universities across the country threaten to walk out again over long-running pay dispute. 

The Universities Academic Staff Union (UASU) and the Kenya Universities Staff Union (KUSU) on June 30th gave the government until midnight to fully implement the Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA), which had been agreed in March 13th after teachers ended a 54-day strike.

UASU Secretary General Constantine Wasonga told the press that lecturers are yet to receive the pay they had been promised in March and are now owed a considerable amount in arrears.

“If the CBA is not implemented by close of business today all university lecturers and professors in all Kenyan public universities shall withhold their services effective from today and the strike shall continue until the registered 2013-2017 CBA is fully implemented,” Wasonga said.

“This will be the grandmother of all strikes. Lecturers are more energetic and determined than ever to fight for their dignity and constitutional rights,” Mr Wasonga continued.

At least 33 public universities and their constituent colleges across the country with more than 500,000 students will be affected should the lecturers and university staff carry out their threat.

In March this year, UASU and university councils agreed to sign the 2013-2017 CBA ending the 54-day strike that paralysed learning and research in public universities since January 19th.

The CBA stipulated that lecturers would get a 17.5% increase in basic salary and a 3.9% increase in house allowance, despite those such as the Maasai Mara University, which already had higher pay increments.

Early February, the union rejected a Kenyan Shillings 10 billion offer by on grounds that it was inadequate and failed to harmonise salaries.

KUSU Secretary General Charles Mukhwaya said lecturers are extremely disappointed by the government for their failure to implement a CBA that they signed and registered in court, reported the Daily Nation.

Find out more in the Africa Research Bulletin:

KENYA: Pre-Election Violence
Political, Social & Cultural Series
Vol. 54, Issue. 5, Pp. 21436B–21437B

KENYA: Gender Quota
Political, Social & Cultural Series
Vol. 54, Issue. 4, Pp. 21392A–21392C

KENYA: Land Clashes
Political, Social & Cultural Series
Vol. 54, Issue. 3, Pp. 21366C–21368A

Subscribe to the Africa Research Bulletin today. 

Nile Basin – No Deal After Summit

arbe_large

Discussions between Nile Basin countries fail to reach agreement as many leaders boycott talks.

The Nile Basin Summit from June 20-22nd was convened to provide an opportunity for the ten countries reliant on the River Nile to agree on the equitable use of the resource. Tensions around the vital water source have persisted for many decades.

Initial signs, however, were less promising as a number of leaders chose not to attend. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and his South Sudanese counterpart Salva Kirr notified the delegates that they would skip the event.

The summit brought together all countries along the River Nile and was attended by Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn, South Sudan Vice President Joseph Wani, Burundi’s 2nd Vice President Joseph Butore and Sudan’s Vice President Hasabo Mohammed Abdul Rahman.

The leaders of Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania also turned down invitations to attend at the last minute, although no clear reasons for the decision were given by the respective embassies.

It was clear during the meeting that an agreement on the equitable use of resources was proving difficult as stakeholders repeatedly walked out of meetings at the Speke Resort Munyonyo in Uganda.

Led by Sudan, water security experts walked out a meeting at 10pm on June 21st, while Ethiopia followed suit. In the large the summit was organised to nudge Egypt, the biggest beneficiary of the Nile basin, to join the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI).

However, Egyptian Minister for Irrigation and Water Resources Mohammed Abdel-Atti said that his country would only rejoin if some provisions in the draft Cooperative Framework Agreement (CFA) were changed.

Al-Sisi reportedly said that his country was suffering from a water deficit of 21.5 billion cubic metres per year. However, although Egypt hasn’t yet rejoined NBI, it will engage in development projects in the region.

Speaking to journalists, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni said he and his colleagues discussed development issues. Despite only three heads of state being present, Museveni said they decided to meet as leaders to discuss the ‘strategic issues of the Nile.’ reported the Observer. 

nilebasin
Nile Basin – Source: Africa Water.

According to Museveni, prosperity for the Nile Basin countries is the best way to protect the river and other vital water systems in Africa. He pointed out a number of key threats to water systems.

These threats included the growing population, lack of electricity supply, lack of industrialisation, over-reliance on primitive agriculture and the destruction of the environment on which the Nile depends.

He said that industrialising the Nile Basin would resolve the problems of the bulk of the population engaging in primitive agriculture, pushing many into the industry and service sectors. He added that this would reduce the strain on the environment through the invasion of wetlands and destruction of forests for agriculture, reported the Uganda Media Centre.

Of course this sort of solution is denounced by others who note how industrialisation will lead to further environmental degradation and pollution, and raise levels of inequality as groups are incorporated, often on adverse terms, as labourers in the service or manufacturing economy.

Further, a deal between Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan signed in December 2015 whereby the three countries agreed to end tensions over River Nile water, is also facing an unclear future due to ongoing tensions between Egypt and Sudan.

The two downstream countries at the end of April agreed to de-escalate tensions and end counter-accusations as well as import bans and deportations had brought relations between the two countries to tipping point.

Meanwhile Ethiopia continued its quest to bring Nile Basin countries on its side as its Grand Renaissance Dam nearing completion.

With electricity as a bargaining chip observers say Ethiopia will have an edge over Egypt which claims the majority share of Nile waters, given to it by a colonial agreement put in place by the British, reported the East African.

Find out more in the Africa Research Bulletin today:

Grand Renaissance Dam Project
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol. 52, Issue. 3, Pp. 20795A–20795B

POWER: Egypt – Ethiopia – Sudan
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol. 51, Issue. 8, Pp. 20543C–20545C

EGYPT – ETHIOPIA: Nile Dam Problems
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol. 50, Issue. 10, Pp. 20154B–20155B

Subscribe to the Africa Research Bulletin today.

Health – Malaria Vaccine Trials

arbp_synergy

Three Africa countries are selected for first phase of a Malaria vaccine pilot. 

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has announced that Ghana, Kenya and Malawi a are to be pilot countries for a new Malaria vaccine for young children from 2018. The vaccine has the potential to save tens of thousands of lives.

The vaccine was developed by GlaxoSmithKline and will be tested on children aged five to 17 months; it has taken decades of scientific and medical expertise to produce, and hundreds of millions of US dollars in funding.

The funding of US$49m for the first pilot phase is being funded by the Global Vaccine Alliance (GAVI), UNITAID and the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis, and Malaria.

However, the vaccine only has partial effectiveness, and the challenge is whether countries can deliver the required four doses per child, said WHO Africa Regional Director, Matshidiso Moeti.

4443583700_e7fedf8fd9_o
CC Radio Okapi 2006

Malaria infects roughly 200 million people each year, killing roughly half a million people, and Sub-Saharan Africa is hit particularly hard, with 90% of the world’s cases in 2015.

According to the WHO, modelling and data gathering has been so bad that it has been hard to tell if cases have been rising or falling over the last 15 years.

Kenya, Ghana and Malawi already have fairly strong prevention and vaccination programmes, but were chosen as they still have a high number of malaria cases. The vaccine will be delivered through existing health provisioning systems.

The WHO has stated its aim to wipe out the disease by 2040, although so far it has proven stubborn, with resistance problems to both drugs and insecticides.

According to Kathryn Maitland, Professor of Tropical Paediatric Infectious Diseases at Imperial College London, writing in a academic paper published in December 2016, “the slow progress in this field is astonishing, given that malaria has been around for millennia and has been a major force for human evolutionary selection…contrast this pace of change with out progress in the treatment of HIV, a disease a little more than three decades old.” (The Independent 24/4)

Find out more in the Africa Research Bulletin:

HEALTH: Malaria
Political, Social & Cultural Series
Vol. 54, Issue. 4, Pp. 21416A–21417C

HEALTH: Wiping Out Polio
Political, Social & Cultural Series
Vol. 54, Issue. 3, Pp. 21381B–21381C

HEALTH: HIV Treatment Soars
Political, Social & Cultural Series
Vol. 53, Issue. 11, Pp. 21236A–21237C

Subscribe to the Africa Research Bulletin today. 

 

Kenya – Pastoralist Land Dispute

Incidents of violence involving herders highlight the increasingly precarious situation faced by pastoralists. 

A recent upsurge in attacks by herders on white-owned ranches and wildlife conservancies in Laikipia has led to an outcry, with some describing the pastoralist herders as primitive with no respect for private property or wildlife.

According to the Independent around 10,000 nomadic herders with around 135,000 cattle have invaded ranches and conservancies in Laikipia over the last four months.

In Kenya the white-owned ranches have full support of the government and many are funded by influential donors through the Northern Rangelands Trust (NRT), controlling around 10.8 million acres of land; around 8% of Kenya’s total landmass.

In an example of the influential funding support, the Tullow Oil Company from Turkana County has donated US$11.5m to the NRT to establish further conservancies.

According to some commentators the land was acquired with the help of politicians who subsequently have hailed the NRT as a success, protecting both wildlife and the environment.

The CEO of the Kenya Wildlife Conservancies Association (KWCA) stated: “Conservancies amidst the increasing complex social and economic pressures, have been used as an avenue to bring together warring communities to co-manage resources, develop enterprises to enhance livelihoods, diversify tourism, secure grass banks for livestock during the dry seasons and create jobs for the local communities.”

However issues relate to pastoralists not being able to use the land during drought periods, when water is scarce. According to journalist John Mbaria, as the conservancies are United Nations (UN) protected, they are largely insulated from public scrutiny, reported the Daily Nation

The conflict also has highlighted prevalent attitudes towards pastoralists, who are perceived as damaging to the environment. Such a perspective ignores the fact that for centuries herders such as the Maasai and Samburu have lived relatively harmoniously with wildlife.


Herder in Samburu County – CC 2014

In the colonial period settlers turned Kenya into a hunting ground, while after independence and the ban on poaching, settlers needed to justify their ownership of property and thus established wildlife conservancies. Much of the land dates back to the 1904 Anglo-Maasai Agreement when locals “willingly” gave their land in the Central Rift Valley, according to the Daily Nation

Attempts by pastoralists to reclaim land have largely failed. In 2004 herders who drove their cattle into a ranch in Laikipia, were shot at by the police.

A British-Kenyan rancher, Matthew Voorspuy was shot dead while riding to inspect cottages that had been torched on his land earlier in March; a Kenyan politician Matthew Lempurkel was arrested and later bailed in connection to the incident.

In Kom, Isiolo County, a clash between armed herders from Isiolo and those from Samburu led to the deaths of ten people. Reports suggested that the Isiolo herders attacked the Samburu after they entered their grazing areas without permission, reported the East African.

On March 20th the Daily Nation reported that two people were killed in Baragoi after clashes between Samburu and Turkana communities, after four cows and around 300 goats were reportedly stolen from the Samburu.

The situation also highlights the precarious situation of pastoralists, caught between state repression, communal infighting and persistent drought. According to the Kenya Land Alliance (KLA), more than 65% of the arable land in the country is in the hands of 20% of the population.

Find out more in the Africa Research Bulletin:

KENYA – UK: Reparations Claim [Free to Read]
Political, Social & Cultural Series
Vol. 53, Issue. 12, Pp. 21271B–21272C

CONSERVATION: Kenya
Political, Social & Cultural Series
Vol. 53, Issue. 3, Pp. 20948A–20948B

KENYA: Deadly Attacks
Political, Social & Cultural Series
Vol. 51, Issue. 11, Pp. 20358C–20360A

Subscribe to the Africa Research Bulletin today. 

Kenya – Mau Mau Veterans Seek Compensation

arbp_large

Victims of Mau Mau rebellion seek considerable reparations from the British government.

Victims of violence and atrocities during the British colonial rule of Kenya have called for action to boycott against next year’s August election unless the UK government pays significant sums of reparations.

Many veterans who fought against white settlers and the British army during the Mau Mau rebellion claim they have never been compensated. However, in 2013 the British government did pay £20m to a group of 5000 survivors.

The veterans have said that believe they deserve a share of the reparations for the damage colonial rule did to the country, both at the time and subsequently. The figures that were previously counted, they claim, were based on census data from the 1940s and do not reflect that the population is now much greater.

The Chairman of a group representing the veterans, Field Marshall Ngacha Karani, said that the Kenyan government should be demanding 400 trillion Kenyan shillings – or £4 trillion; the UKs annual GDP is in the region of £4trn.

In an interview with Kenya’s Standard newspaper, 90-year-old freedom fighter Faith Wanjiru Wachira recalled how she risked her life to help feed and clothe Mau Mau rebels deep inside the Mount Kenya forest.

“It pains me that I fought for land, but I ended up without any. I am hopeful that one day, the government will consider my struggle in ensuring that Kenya attained independence and reward me with land,” she said.

20795461724_c28d6c864c_h
Mau Mau Memorial Statue – CC 2015

The Mau Mau rebellion, which took place between 1952 and 1960, remains one of the more controversial episodes of Britain’s colonial history.

The uprising involved thousands of mainly ethnic Kikuyu groups who revolted against British rule, economic deprivation and dispossession of their agricultural homelands in the north of the country.

To stem the unrest the Kenyan and British colonial authorities declared a state of emergency and rounded up more than one million Kikuyu into camps, which historians now see as essentially concentration camps – many thousands died.

Currently there is a class action suit making its way through the British courts which involves more than 8000 claimants. This is in addition to another case in 2013.

According to a report by Kenya’s Citizen TV, the group representing the Mau Mau veterans is urging representatives to travel throughout the country to mobilise Kenyans to boycott the election due to be held on August 8th 2017.

(The Independent 14/12)

Find out more in the Africa Research Bulletin:

KENYA – UK: Historic Mau-Mau Ruling
Political, Social & Cultural Series
Vol. 49, Issue. 10, Pp. 19469c-19470c.

KENYA–UK: Mau Mau Veterans Issue Writ
Political, Social & Cultural Series
Vol. 43, Issue. 10, Pp. 16841A–16841B

Mau Mau Leader Honoured
Political, Social & Cultural Series
Vol. 44, Issue. 2, Pp. 16980C

Subscribe to the Africa Research Bulletin today.

Kenya – Conservationists Lament Railway Plans

arbe_large700

The central section of a huge infrastructure project is to cut directly across East Africa’s oldest national park.

The Nairobi National Park, a wildlife reserve housing lions, hyenas and giraffes just 7km from the centre of Nairobi, is currently in the midst of proposed plans to build a Chinese-funded railway across what is the oldest park in East Africa.

The edges of the park have slowly been eaten away by development and expansion, with power lines stretching overland and pipelines underground. New housing estates also obstruct key migration routes for wildlife, which lead to other nature reserves such as the Maasai Mara.

According to head of the Friends of Nairobi National Park, Sidney Kamanzi, in the 1970s and 1980s around 30,000 wildebeest came to the area, now the numbers are in the region of 300.

The proposed railway line is to be elevated across 6km of the park, on pillars between 8m and 40m tall. Conservationists have deplored the plans, calling it a step too far and claiming the consequences will be disastrous.

UK-based BBC News commented that the new railway project could be a new ‘lunatic line,’ referring to thousands of workers who were killed building railways in the country at the turn of the 19th/20th centuries; around 100 people were killed by lions, while a further 4000 died of diseases.

_91434922_railway_route_624
BBC News 

The railway is part of planned upgrades to the national network linking the Mombasa port to Nairobi and onwards to regional neighbours such as Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan; it is the largest infrastructure project in the country since independence in 1963.

The second stage of construction, from Nairobi to Naivasha – crossing the park – is seen as the most problematic; many had hoped that the railway would skirt around the park, but according to the government the costs of this were just too high.

Works on the elevated sections are scheduled to begin in January 2017 lasting around 18 months, although in stages to avoid cutting off parts of the park completely. However conservationists have deplored the lack of impact study and disregard for the natural environment.

“If the railway (line) is authorised, it could create a precedent that could mean the death of the park,” said Sidney Quntai, who heads the Kenyan Coalition for the Conservation and Management of Fauna.

On October 3rd a group of Maasi women from Oloosirkon, Kitenkela, Emakoko and Embakasi villages presented a petition to President Uhuru Kenyatta. An environmental tribunal in mid-September ruled against the railway line in the national park until a case had been heard, but the government continues to hold public hearings.

“The processions are not against infrastructure projects. We don’t want those that are poorly thought out, environmentally unsound and abuse our natural heritage like having SGR pass through the park,”  one of the protest organisers, Nkamuno Patita, said, reported Kenyan media service, The Star.

Kitili Mbathi, the Director General of Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), tried to reassure protesters who recently delivered a petition; “We will be working with the contractor to make sure the construction will be as least disruptive as possible and as environmentally friendly as possible,” he said.

However, Kenyan economist David Ndii said, “It’s a white elephant – we don’t need it…It’s not necessary, its overpriced. Its the most expensive single project we have done and it’s not economically viable now or in the future,” reported BBC News.

(© AFP 30/9 2016)

Find out more in the Africa Research Bulletin:

ROADS AND RAILWAYS: Kenya
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol.53, Issue.7, Pp.21362B–21363B

ROADS AND RAILWAYS: Kenya – Uganda
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol. 53, Issue. 6, Pp.21325C–21327A

ROADS AND RAILWAYS: Kenya
Economic, Financial & Technical Series
Vol. 53, Issue. 2, Pp.21181A–21182A

Subscribe to the Africa Research Bulletin today.